(All numbers are approximate)
News agencies (3 major ones)
Print media: 30,000
General interest/consumer press: 110
Industry press: 74
Electronic media: 8,000
Private radio stations: 240
Public radio stations: approx. 1,800
Private TV stations: 100
Public TV stations: 3,000
Cable TV stations: 2,400
Free TV channels: 3,120
Pay TV channels: 700
OVERVIEW -- THE RUSSIAN MEDIA LANDSCAPE
The situation in the Russian press has radically changed during the past years. The 1992 Law "On Mass Media in the Russian Federation" abolished censorship and provided a legal basis for a normal functioning of the press. The first private newspapers and magazines began coming out. Now the press is differentiated according to political orientation, selection of problems and readership tastes. The creation of equal conditions for the survival of all periodicals is in the offering.
Unfortunately, no one has exact information about the number of newspapers and magazines in Russia today; even the Russian Ministry of Mass Media does not have a correct data base. Overall, there are more than 50,000 newspapers and magazines in Russia. Today practically any reader can choose a newspaper to his/her liking, depending on age, profession or other interests, political orientations and values. Along with newspapers published in millions of copies, numerous new periodicals are addressed to a limited readership.
The following essential trends in the Russian
mass media can be cited:
Until the beginning of the 1990s, TV and radio were controlled by one gigantic machine: the State Committee for TV and Radio (Gosteleradio). Democratisation has changed this country and broke this monolith into numerous independent companies, both state-run and private.
There are now Central TV, republic and local (territorial, regional and city) TV studios in the system of Russian TV. In Russia, TV traditionally has a great influence on the public, especially in the provinces.
Central TV broadcasts on three channels: ORT - Obshchestvennoye Radio i Televideniye (channel 1); VGTRK - Rossiyskoye Televideniye i Radio (channel 2); TV Centre Russia (channel 3) and NTV (channel 4).
Every republic, region and district area has a TV studio, but many of them don't have a channel of their own. As a rule, local TV studios have used the RTR channel at night.
There are 9 major channels in Moscow:
ORT - Obshchestvennoye Radio Televideniye (channel 1)
VGTRK - Rossiyskoye Televideniye i Radio (channel 2)
TV Centre Stolitsa - Moscow TV (channel 3)
NTV - Nesavisimoye TV/ Independent TV (channel 4)
Cultura -The Culture (channel 5)
TV 6 (channel 6)
M1 channel (Moscow, Moscow area and a dozen more Russian towns)
STS-8 (Moscow and more than 200 Russian towns)
Each Russian citizen enjoys radio services today. There are Central Radio, as well as republic and local radio stations in Russia. Radio Russia is a national channel with round-the-clock broadcasting which finally did away with the All-Union Radio's broadcasting monopoly. FM stations has become very popular in big cities.
Every republic, region, and district area has its own radio station. The radio market has changed. Today we see the emergence of new stations, a shift in programming towards music-oriented shows, and a shorter attention span among listeners.
Among the large number of news agencies in Russia we should mention three of them as the most influential: Interfax, ITAR-TASS and Ria-Novosti.
Of course, the Moscow mass media is considered
to be the most influential in Russia. It dominates the information market
and is read by the majority of opinion leaders on the national scale.
Publicity and Media Relations
Everyone everywhere realises the importance
of PR activities and media relations on the national scale. Exclusive co-operation
is frequently based on personal contacts. ACES Public Relations Ltd. does
not pay production costs for PR articles. PR Product is possible. There
are Federal laws on product placement.